Posted tagged ‘social awareness’

REFLECTING COMMUNITY WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT

October 13, 2008

Erle Frayne Argonza

 

Gracious morning to you!

 

A country such as Tanzania that is known for possessing large swaths of wildlife can provide to us a wonderful database regarding the impact of political and economic changes on community wildlife management.

 

Such is precisely the purpose of a report prepared by the Drylands Programme, as summarized below.

 

[05 October 2008, Quezon City, MetroManila. Thanks to Eldis database reports.]


 

Emergent or illusory? community wildlife management in Tanzania

Authors: Nelson,F.
Produced by: Drylands Programme, IIED (2007)

As the country known around the world as the home of the Serengeti and Ngorongoro Crater, few natural resources are more closely associated with Tanzania than its wildlife populations. By the 1980s, Tanzania’s wildlife management practices were under increasing pressure from a set of internal and external forces largely linked with the broad economic and political changes occurring in the country at that time. This led to support for greater local community involvement in wildlife management as a means of pursuing both conservation and rural development goals. This paper considers the outcomes and impacts of wildlife areas in Tanzania, and considers the emergence of community wildlife management (CWM) strategies.

The author highlights that the outcomes of over a decade of CWM in Tanzania reflect broader internal political struggles over land rights, resource governance, and participation in policy formulation, as well as challenges facing efforts to devolve natural resource management to local communities throughout the tropics. The paper concludes with some suggestions for how practitioners in Tanzania and elsewhere might foster more effective and adaptive CWM approaches in light of these outcomes and experiences:

  • new institutional models are needed if CWM is to emerge in Tanzania in a more effective and robust manner
  • efforts to support CWM need to take greater account of the institutional incentives that influence reform outcomes, and recognise that in most instances enabling CWM will require long-term negotiations between local and central interests over resource rights and uses
  • long-term and adaptive strategies for moving the institutional balance of power towards the local level are fundamental to CWM
  • development aid agencies and international conservation organisations need to find innovative ways of supporting institutional processes if they are to make more productive investments in CWM.

Available online at: http://www.eldis.org/cf/rdr/?doc=39350&em=240908&sub=enviro

VALUE-BASED FRAMEWORKS FOR DEVELOPMENT

April 28, 2008

 

Erle Frayne D. Argonza

 

[Writ 22 March 2008, Quezon City, MetroManila]

 

In the same article on New Nationalism, I advanced the thesis for value-based integrated frameworks.

 

The classical frameworks of development were largely rationalistic models, or Western-oriented. I don’t have a problem with accepting Western development frameworks. However, I found out in my own long practice of social development that they don’t completely work in the field.

 

The ‘value-neutral’ premise of rationalism is particularly suspect and dangerous, in that it can lead to the treatment of clientele as hard objects. Those frameworks coming from the East that are strongly value-based rather than value-neutral do serve the greater purpose of recognizing the powers of people to transform their own lives.

 

Being a yogi and mystic, I am particularly cognizant of the teachings of spiritual masters from the East. Just a cursory review of the teachings of Gandhi, Sarkar (Ananda Marga founder), Buddha, and Jesus (gospel teachings) can already provide the development worker with the frames of reference for a value-based integrated framework.

 

That’s why I go strongly for this sublime integration rather than the old-fogey binary frame of pitting East versus West. It should be a both/and thinking that we better adopt here. In the Philippines, we are a people who are both East and West in our culture and psyche, so we have come to gradually synthesize the disparate models of development for both. It may take some more time though before we can perfect the synthesis and experience development and peace in the islands.

 

India and China are the exemplars of development paths that took into consideration the potency of both Eastern and Western frames of development. Look at where these two countries are today: at the threshold of world economic power status. Had their development planners, managers and implementers decided to junk the Eastern jewels in their paradigm frames, they couldn’t have reached their status today as global players.

 

The excerpts from the article are entirely quoted below.

 

Make room for value-based & integrated frameworks.

 

Not only should we look up to the West for paradigms with which to construct frameworks and models of growth & development. We should also welcome the initiatives of our emerging thinkers and practitioner-gurus to integrate the Eastern paradigms in their conceptualizations, system designs and related matters. These efforts will fortify our understanding of economics, Philippine-style, in as much as we are a people forged in the cultural smelters of both Eastern and Western civilizations. 

 

Among civil society groups, the modeling of entrepreneurship and social enterprises based on integrated East-West paradigms have been demonstrated with success and clarity. We should welcome such perspectives, and do our share of the task to transport such frameworks from the margins to the mainstream of national consciousness. The resultant frameworks are often value-based in form, though they do not necessarily shun scientistic/empiricist treatment of economic problems. The common theme among such frameworks is synergy: an interconnection among various ‘social enterprises’ and NGOs reaching a far broader scale, resulting to a broad   movement. This I am well aware of, having immersed myself in civil society for a long time in the past.